Tag Archives: know your food

Free Class Saturday March 22nd 10-noon, Introduction to gardening and food production

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This meet-up is FREE sponsored by The Point Church and Community Center.

We will be discussing many topics such as when to start, companion planting, deep mulch, composting, edible landscaping, back yard chickens and more.

If the continuing food price increases are getting you down start producing your own. You do not need land to grow your own food. There are tips and techniques that you can even grow indoors in a window or even without.

With the drought in California fruit and vegetable prices are going to go up. Recently California ranchers stated they will be liquidating many of the herds. This means increased prices on beef as well.

Tired of all the chemicals in and on your foods. Grow your own and know exactly what is in it.

The slides are for classroom use only and no notes/handouts provided. If you would like a copy of the slides you can purchase them before or after the class $5. Cash or via PayPal wolfbeachfarms-at-gmail.com There are lots of charts and graphs. All information is available for free if you know where to look. No audio or video recording allowed.

Details at the Link below or to RSVP

http://www.meetup.com/AlternativeGardening/events/169762822/

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Where to start?

                Many people use the saying “How do you eat an elephant? One bite at a time”. Yeah yeah, yeah, we all have heard that. Then a few things that happen recently made me stop and think about it, and where I am at today, where I was five years ago, and where I want to be in another five years. I thought; how to help people when it seems so overwhelming once you get the self sufficiency, permaculture, or general wake up bug.

One day at one of the tours at our suburban property someone asked, how do I do it all, and where did I start? A day or so ago I was praising someone for sharing so much of their knowledge with me, and one of the online forums we both belong to (TSP). Another member pointed out that her posts should be a wakeup call to all those that are not doing as much. This was in reference to just general homesteading tasks, but I took it as a whole and really could be doing much more on a daily basis. Same forum someone asked a really vague and general question. “Where did everyone get started and what are your best resources for permaculture”.

You start one day at a time, one project, and one idea at a time. So you have never grown anything in your life let alone for food, and worse, have to depend on that food you grow.  Start small, a houseplant over the winter in a window. It gives a sense of accomplishment, and bonus helps filter your air in your home. There are lots Aloe in my front windowof hardy plants that can be grown inside. Start out with an aloe plant. It is hardy enough if you forget to water for a few weeks, sometimes months it can still survive. The “leaves” will tell you what is going on. If they wilt, add some water, start turning brown, too much water, too cold, or maybe needs more sun. It has many beneficial food and medicinal properties as stated on an earlier post. After a few months and a large enough pot, you will see “baby” aloe plants. Separate and now you have more. Share with someone, sell them, or give them away.

So now you successfully raise an aloe plant, now what? Try a tomato, or lettuce in a pot or bucket. While tomatoes, at least here in the Midwest will need to wait until spring or

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summer, you can grow lettuce the same way as you did your aloe plant over winter. Buy romaine, rather than iceberg lettuce next time you go to the store. When you use it down to the heart, plant it in the same window you had the aloe. It should regrow. It will need more frequent watering, but it is a start. Romaine is healthier than iceberg, and I never get the bagged stuff. It is not as fresh, and will not last as long. If you eat regular salads plant each heart, soon you will have several plants going. After a while you can collect a salad or two a week from your recycled romaine plants. You are now growing your own food.

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Here are some other plants you can regrow after you harvest from the store.

Regrow

Try some other plants, on a balcony, in a window, on a deck. You do not need to jump right into turning your yard into a garden. Often people feel overwhelmed by trying to do EVERYTHIGN they read about all at once. Remember one step at a time. Build on each new skill you learn.

Here is another quick win. Do you shred your junk mail and other documents you get in the mail before putting them in the garbage? If not you should. Buy a micro shredder. It is harder for crooks to put your information back together from the garbage. OK, ok, what does this have to do with permaculture. Great tip but what gives? Shred your paper waste, no glossy materials i.e. magazines, and some inserts and flyers. Use the shreds to start a worm composter. What? Don’t they smell? Not at all if done right. The paper acts as bedding to the worms, and they will eventually eat it too as it starts to break down. Get a bucket, tub, trashcan, anything that will hold soil and the worms. It could be as small as a 1 gal ice cream bucket (plastic) to 55 gal barrel or bigger. If you must have a lid on your bin add air holes in the top. Add compost material to your bin, (no dairy, meat, or fats this makes it smell) along with a little soil, some red wiggler worms, then cover with the shredded paper and walk away. It needs to have a little moisture, think damp not wet. In a few weeks the worms turn your food and junk mail waste into rich compost. You can add this black gold back to your lettuce garden. It will give back added nutrients and boost your soil for the plants. If you cook pasta or steam vegetables, water your lettuce with the water once it has cooled. No need to send it down the drain. That is some great fertilizer for plants. Looking for where to get worms locally? Keith at Castaway Compost where I got mine to start. Don’t look now; you have just become an organic gardener. Seems small right? But small steps can complete a marathon.

We use something like this. We paid a little bit extra to get one that would handle 8+ sheets at a time. $60. We also shred all cardboard, paperboard, newspaper, office paper etc.

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Here is one of our bins

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Pull back the paper, and black gold with tons of worms.

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Feeling accomplished? Try an aquaponics basic indoor system. It really is pretty simple, and can be accomplished for under $50. In just a few months you have gone from never growing anything to an organic gardener producing at least some of your own food. Let’s call this post Step One. Step Two, grow a salad with cucumbers, lettuce, spinach, tomatoes, carrots and spinach then top it off with homemade croutons and homemade dressing.  No yard, no problem. If you are on Step One, or going to start Step One, do it over the winter. Most people hibernate here in the Midwest anyway, might as well pick up a new skill. January is the time to start Step Two. Do what? It is the middle of winter in the Midwest. Stay tuned and I will fill you in.

Do you know someone who wants to get started but doesn’t know where to start? Share this post with them.

Reminder Local learning opportunities

Tonight – Wednesday November 6th at 7pm Edible Wild Plants presented by Chris Martini, park manager of Southeastway Park, presenting at the Franklin Township Civic League, 8822 Southeastern Avenue Indianapolis, IN. This is a free class and a great opportunity to learn about wild edibles. This is definitely something you don’t want to learn from a book or online. If you want to register online please do so at the Alternative Gardening Meetup site.

  

Saturday November 23rh 9am. Full day class on homesteading. I will be presenting on turning your back yard into a food production machine, then how to preserve and store what you have produced. Lastly some DIY items you can make yourself, healthier and cheaper such as; laundry soap, toothpaste and more. Get free samples and register to win a free planting barrel. A $120 value. The cost is $40 per person and a discount for couples. Pay in advance to reserve your seat. More details and to register here. Global Soaps will be on hand to sell and discuss natural soap and lotion making.

 

January 10-12 there will be a 2 day seminar on permaculture, homesteading, selling you overage produced, rotational grazing, fencing and more. Three presenters Jason Akers from Self Sufficient Gardner, Darby Simpson from Darby Simpson Consulting and Simpson Family Farm, and I will give two full days of information. Then a meet and greet on Friday night to mingle and get some extra personal attention and questions answered and the evening of Saturday the 11th will be a round table question and answer session, so participants can get their specific questions answered or more details from topics discussed. Bonus, two properties, one urban and one rural will be selected for a permaculture and rotational grazing build. This alone is worth several hundred dollars. The cost for both days and access to the meet and greet is $150 in advance and there are discounts available and payment options available. More details later this week. We are developing a site specific to this project. I wanted to get the information out and people to start planning. It will be at the Cambria Suites hotel in Plainfield so if you wanted to stay and not have to drive out each day there are a block of rooms reserved already. Indoor pool, gym, and some pretty nice suites. Great getaway in the middle of Indiana winter

Build an aquaponics system for under $50

Recently I hosted a tour from the great folks from Aquatic Design. A local company that sells, installs, and services ponds and other waterscapes. They are beginning to enter the world of aquaponics, and wanted to see some real examples from the area. Granted my system are no commercial operation, nor are they often pretty to look at. I mean, I use kitty litter boxes as biofilters. It was cheap (free), I felt accomplished, I did it myself, it works, I can replace parts easily and inexpensively (free).  

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The tour was a learning experience for both I felt. I shared my experiences and lessons learn, often the hard way, and what I, as a new consumer, or someone just getting into aquaponics might be asking, looking for, and solutions to some problems I encountered. I have been a past customer of Aquatic Design and probably continue to be. It was a great feeling when they asked me to come see their new building which will house their aquaponics examples and configurations and maybe give advice as they were setting things up. I felt like all my lessons learned the hard way, shortfalls, and set backs were for a reason. I didn’t need to go to a course, an educational institution, or pay a big chunk of money for the education I had experienced. So when I tell people you don’t need to spend a ton of money on videos, books or classes, to learn about aquaponics I come speaking from experience.  

 While they were here I talked about the largest system 4500 gal outdoor down to my smallest system 30 gallon. As of now we have 4 systems in operation. 4500 gal outdoor pond, 3000 gal currently in a greenhouse but being converted to hoop house, the newest a 275 gal poly tote in the garage – still under development, and the 30 gal inside our kitchen/dining room. This 30 gal is something many people can put into place for inexpensively, it is a great conversation piece, it is entertainment, it is educational for kids of almost all ages, and in my mind, it’s really cool.

 

4500 gal system

4500 gal outdoor system

3000 gal greenhouse system
3000 gal greenhouse system
275 gal still under development

275 gal still under development

Tubs on top of the 275 gal tank. Using Raft grow system

Tubs on top of the 275 gal tank. Using Raft grow system, romaine, celery, and azola growing

30 gal indoor system

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Romaine from purchased head

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Romaine 3 days later

I made this system a continuous recycling flow system. I got the aquarium from a friend who was throwing it out. Free. You can look on Craigslist, Goodwill, or friends and family for aquariums. Many times people would love to get rid of them. Bonus if you get pumps or other stuff with it you can use later.

The rocks on the bottom of the tank are landscaping lava rocks. Mine were free. The previous owner of my current house landscaped with it. I hate the stuff in the yard. Again free. (well, if you count the $10 I pay kids to collect if they want to earn money). Fish habitat or hiding spaces I used left over PVC pipe from another project. Find them at building sites, or look around. It could be old Tupperware, or food containers just something for the fish to swim in and out of.

I actually paid for the submersible pump. But it was 75% off so I think I paid $10. Some big box stores will clearance pond and fountain pumps in fall and early winter. Just watch for sales. Or it may come with your aquarium you got for free. You can watch Goodwill and I have seen fountains or other pumps on occasion. Worst case $30 or so retail price.

The grow beds are wash bins. This was a Goodwill special and I only paid $0.25 each. Dollar Store has them for a buck. The grow media, lava rock again. Do not pay for the extruded clay. Not worth the extra money in my opinion. I drilled holes in the bins and had the pump take water from the tank, pump into the bins, and out the drainage holes in the bottom. It is important to add more holes than you think is necessary, because over time roots and other gunk can fill the holes and it will overflow. Another important lesson, add overflow holes below the lip. VERY important, if you don’t, and your drainage holes become clogged, your tank will overflow, and all your water will go onto the floor. Want to know how I learned this?

Because of the location in my house the system doesn’t get enough direct light to support plant growth. So I added a florescent light. The light, the stand, and the bulbs maybe $30. I made the stand out of PVC pipe and fittings. I could have just as easily hung from the ceiling and saved the cost. I use this system sometimes when I to talks or presentations and the stand is needed for display purposes. You need to use a bulb that will hit 2700K to 6500K, read the labels on the bulbs. Choose a T5 over a T12 type of bulb. T5 is higher intensity over T12, and more efficient use of energy. The fixture should match the bulb type, T5 bulbs fit in T5 fixtures. You could use HID, or LED. But for the money and energy I found fluorescent was just fine. HID gives off too much heat, and LED was too expensive. With fluorescent lights you want them 2-6 inches from the plants. The light needed for photosynthesis loses its intensity after 6 inches using fluorescent bulbs. HID can be several feet away because it is a more intense light (and 2-6 inches will literally cook your plants).  

We have some kale, some medicinal plants, and a philodendron, which are poisonous, but we can split and propagate to other containers to sell, or help purify the air in the house. We always leave the main plant so that there is always a plant purifying the water in the system. We have had tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, parsley, basil, cilantro, marigold and more. You can get plants from what many people think of wastes. We have started planting the bottoms of romaine lettuce. It was originally just an experiment, but now we are just harvesting the leaves for food. Celery is another plant that can be planted from the hearts when you buy them at the store. Here is another list of plants you can plant from cuttings when buying food. You can also regrow scallions, 3+ years of cuttings from the same plant.

Regrow

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Celery, this is the 4th regrowth for this plant

I got feeder fish from the pet store $0.12 each. I got a plecostomus (sucker fish) to eat the algae off the sides so I didn’t have to do it. $2.00. I feed the fish azola or duckweed I grow myself. So feeding them is free.  From an educational standpoint there are so many things to learn. From the 2 year old feeding and watching the fish, to adults and learning about the nitrogen cycle. There are lots of lessons to be learned. Want to learn more. Contact us, or follow us here, on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Pinterest.  Or come see us in person November 23rd for a full day class on homesteading, growing your own food, preserving your own food and more! Ensure your spot is reserved by registering and prepaying for the class. Schedule your own series of classes with the Be Prepared Series.

Be Prepared Series

Be prepares is a series offered by Wolf-Beach Farms. It is designed to be a multiple series of classes picked by the audience, and delivered as often as you would like. The course designers pick from a series of classes or all of the classes. The class on average is about 2 hours and can be one a week, twice a month once a month or every other month. The goal is to fit what your needs are in the time you have.

The series starts with an opening class to go over what and how the classes will be organized. The beginning class the participants will be given a binder. This binder will hold the class notes, handouts, examples, etc. from that particular topic. Each class, the participants will get the handouts, listen and participate in exercises and gain useful insight into the particular topic. Each class will have a section in the binder. At the end of the series the participants will have a handy binder with the necessary information all in one spot. This binder can be used as the “go to” book whenever it is needed.

Classes can be purchased on an individual bases, a series of classes (at a discount) or a whole series at once for a set number of participants. Pricing and classes are flexible and affordable. These series can be customized for your group. Do you want a stronger community built around your church group? When an event happens, who in your group or organization has the skills to help the fellow members out?

Be Prepared series were designed to give participants tools and information in case something happens. This is not to instill fear or doom and gloom. This series was design to help participants face challenges and situations with knowledge and strength rather than fear and ignorance.

Here are some examples.

When a snow storm is announced, what happens at the grocery store? A rush on bread, eggs, and milk. Is everyone going to make French Toast during the storm? These are the wrong things to be stocking up on. Two of the three require electricity to keep them cold and preserve freshness. What if, an announcement was made of a bad storm and you and your family didn’t blink an eye, because you didn’t need a single thing at the store, EVEN if the power went out for days?

Here is another example.

A family of 4 on average spends about $400 per month on groceries according to recent information. Some may be more some may be less. What if I told you that our family of 6 can spend less than $275 per month? It isn’t rocket science, and our pantry is completely full. We eat three meals a day. We even have reserve that if needed could outlast any storm sent our way. Hurricane Sandy had some people without power and local groceries for 6 weeks.

In both cases people say they will just go to the store. Having worked in a major grocery store I can tell you what you see on the shelf is ALL there is in the store. There is little to nothing in “the back room”. The fancy scanner that is used to checkout automatically places an order for the item as it leaves with the warehouse or distributer. IF the trucks are running and they are able to get on the roadways it is 48hrs or more before delivery. The benefits of on demand stocking.

A tornado comes in and wipes out your house. Everyone made it out to safety and you had the keys to the car and everyone is in their PJ’s. You are thankful your family is OK. You return home and everything is gone. How do you document who you are, what you had? Where are all of your papers for insurance, mortgage, bank accounts, and credit cards? In this day and age fraud is rampant. You will need to prove who you are, that your kids are YOUR kids, that what was once your house was YOUR house. Can you imagine the stress, the heartache? Taking a few simple, easy steps and proving who you are, and all the important information will be easily retrievable. Better yet, what if you left, but each had a bag that had cloths, the documents and everything you needed for three days. Three days to put things in order, Three days to not worry about where to sleep, clothing, feeding the family. Sounds like a lot but it is easy to accomplish.

Did you know if you drive a car, SUV, truck etc. you already have access to a generator capable of giving you power in your home if the electrical grid goes down?

Did you know you may already have access to 60+ gallons of water in your home if the water is shut off?

Did you know that you can still communicate with loved ones if cell towers are overloaded?

Did you know that you can produce 800+lbs a year of food on less than 1000sq feet of yard or patio?

Did you know that you do NOT need a rooster to enjoy the benefits of backyard fresh eggs?

These are just a few examples. The Be Prepares series allows you to plan ahead, so that IF you ever have to use these skills, tools, and tips it was planned and thought out when you had a cool, calm, and collective thought process. Here are just a few classes

The series is designed for groups as small as 5 and up to 100 or more.

This is for the average person. It explains things from a basic point of view and uses practical, real world solutions. The series explains how to use what you already have. This isn’t a demo of the latest and greatest gadgets. This is how to accomplish your goals with little to no investment and on a budget.

Do you already have a meeting location? Church space when no services being offered? Meeting rooms, halls apartment club house? All can be used. No location? We work with various venues on different sides of town in and around the Indianapolis area.

Contact us for more details or to start scheduling your own series.

We have apples!

We have been harvesting at least once a week usually twice or more. We have three 55 gal drums full of delicious apples.

We have no idea what kind they are. They were planted some 30 years ago and no on remembers what kind of apples these were. From the best I can tell they are honey crisp and golden delicious. We have about 4 to 1 ratio of honey crisp to golden delicious.

Here are some pics.

apples

Apples2 

We are selling some if anyone is interested cash or trade. If you know how to text or e-mail us use that. If you don’t have that info yet use the contact us page.

These are no chemical no spray or fertilizer. They have had no human intervention other than us picking, so as natural as you can get.

$10 for a stuffed grocery bag or trade. Let us know what you have. We got some yummy meat products from Simpson Family farm earlier this week.

Business recomendations

I don’t easily recommend businesses. But we have a section of products, businesses and services that are recommended. New additions; Darby Simpson Consulting, Simpson Family Farm.

Eating local

This harvest was grown with no chemicals, no man made fertilizers and cost little to nothing to produce. 100% organic, and traveled just feet from my door. How far did your food travel today? What was used on it? Do you know where you food has been? How much are organic apples, tomatoes or organically raised meat, running in the stores these days?

apples

This is from just 1 hour harvesting from some of our apple trees. We have two 55-gal drums full of apples and only started to make a dent in the harvest.  More picking this weekend. Each bin weighs about 150 lbs.

Tomatoes

two plants one harvest. All this came from only two plants in our aquaponics greenhouse in one day. This will go great into the home made v-8. using almost entirely things from our gardens.

Barter meat

So we are not currently producing our own meat, other than eggs. But I was able to barter some meat for apples. Some really nice brats, and package of chicken from a local farmer (Simpson Family Farm). I literally helped raise some of these. I knew exactly how they were raised and where processed. I know the farmer. I have been “interning” learning the ways or organic meat production in return for labor.

So our meal tonight, home made pasta, brats, salad, and baked apples, I know where 90% came from. As I either grew it or had a hand in producing it. The exception is the flour for the pasta, and oils in the dressing. Majority of ingredients in the salad came from our back yard. The cheese, the local farmers market. Hopefully we will be making our own cheese in the near future. Croutons, I made from home made bread. 5 years ago I wouldn’t have thought all this possible. Today, I am thinking what can I produce next?

Herb Blurb – Garlic

Recently I wrote about homemade cold remedy, and homemade chicken broth. Here is the details on another great herb. Garlic.

garlic 2 garlic

Garlic is closely related to onion, shallot, leek, chives and rakkyo and has been used by humans for some 7,000 years. Originally from Asia, it has spread all around the world and is used in both culinary and medical applications.

Garlic today is available in many forms, including fresh, frozen, dried, fermented, (black garlic) freeze dried, and shelf stable products (in tubes or jars). Personally fresh garlic, or home dried is the best option.

Garlic is easy to grow and will grow in most areas of the US. While it can reproduce naturally using pollination from a male and female plant, most grown garlic is used by planting a clove from the bulb. One bulb can plant 10-20 new garlic plants. Garlic is typically planted in fall about six weeks before the first frost and deep enough to not go through many freeze thaw cycles as it will develop mold and rot. It is then harvested in the spring. Garlic doesn’t have too many enemies in the pest world, and is actually great to plant near other plants which are more susceptible. We planted garlic around the roses this year and have noticed a significant decrease in pests. You can also do this around more susceptible plants in your vegetable garden. Garlic can be places fairly close together as long as there is enough room for the bulbs to mature. It likes loose, dry, well drained soils in sunny areas. The best USDA zones for planting are 4-9 but don’t let that stop you from trying if you are outside that zone. If I am close to the zone boundary of a plant I will at least give it a try. There are many techniques using permaculture that can elevate your current zone 2-3 zones higher. Example you can get an extra zone using rocks around the base of a tree to increase 1 zone going from 5 to 6. Or a hoop house can get you as many as 3 zones. From 5 to 8.

You can not only eat the bulbs or cloves, but you can also eat the leaves and flowers. Both have milder flavor than the bulbs, but is still usable in many dishes. Garlic has so many uses in the kitchen they are almost endless. You can eat it raw, sautéed, roasted, infused in oils, toppings and that is just a few. My favorite (although my family hates it when I do this) is to roast it in a terracotta roaster. Take a bulb or elephant garlic, cut the top, and roast it. Drizzle with a little extra virgin olive oil, and eat right out of the peels. The reason my family hates it, is I already eat a lot of garlic. From adding to my scrambled eggs, with a little goat cheese and herbs, to minced raw garlic topping on my salad, to garlic herb butter on my steak. Eating roasted puts me over the edge. I start to ooze garlic out my pores. I smell like walking garlic for a few days until it works out of my system. Apparently can smell from a few feet away. I never notice.

As I said in an earlier post garlic is a component in the cold remedy. Garlic has been known to repel parasites, aid in digestion, antimicrobial, antibacterial, improve respiratory problems, and improve low energy. It has been shown to improve cardiovascular and cholesterol related issues. It has shown in some studies to increase good cholesterol and decrease bad cholesterol. Some studies have shown that regular use of garlic in the diet can reduce high blood pressure and even regulate blood sugar levels. During World War II it was used as an antiseptic. Garlic has been used to treat infections, and administered for treatment of chest colds, digestive disorders, and fungal infections such as thrush. Garlic has also been successful in China in treating AIDS patients with certain types of infections and ailments.

The sticky juice of the garlic has been used to glue glass and porcelain together, and even as an insecticide in organic gardening with diluted and sprayed over plants.

If you are looking to add garlic to your gardens, whether it is vegetable or ornamental gardens, fall is the time to buy. A little bit of garlic can go a long way. 1lb of garlic bulbs can yield 10 lbs of garlic next spring. If not wanting to plant garlic to eat, perhaps just plant as insect and pest control. It is also good against molds, and bacteria and viruses that attack ornamental plants. The less people spray they better off we will all be. While I think of garlic as a wonder plant/herb my family is not so keen on the herb. As my wife says “Everything in moderation, and honey…you over did the garlic again… you are banned until you stop stinking.” Yet I don’t get sick very often, and can eat all kinds of food not good for me (mmm fried foods). My cholesterol is low, and I have really low blood pressure for someone my age, weight, and dietary intake. Now there is an idea. Combine my favorite. Fried garlic in some way? Off to the kitchen to experiment…while the wife is still at work.

Homemade chicken or turkey broth

                I have started making my own chicken and turkey broth for the last several years. It is simple, uses what otherwise was a waste product, and is cheap. You all know I like cheap.

I start by taking a chicken or turkey carcass. This is usually left from when we have Thanksgiving turkey, or roast a whole chicken, or make crock pot chicken.  After all the meat is picked off, I place the carcass in a large pot, or leave in the crock. Add enough water to cover. Then I add the other ingredients.

                You can save your vegetable discards for the stock. Celery tops are great. You cut celery for eating or other recipes. Save the tops of the celery. if you bought the heart from the store, save the bottom too. You can both plant it, and grow your own celery plant (only during warmer months) or toss in the freezer for alter use, like in broth.

                Carrots. Tops and bottoms. Save these and add to broth. If you but the bunches at the store, or of you grow your own don’t throw them away. Use them for broth. You can use and should use the green portions as well.

                Onions are the same as carrots and celery. When you cut the tops and bottoms for other recipes, save them and throw in the freezer. I also use the onion skin.

                Garlic, tops and bottoms. Same thing.

Parsley stems, basil stems, oregano stems, and any other herb which you like, that you use the leaves and toss the stems.

                I will occasionally add broccoli leaves just for something different. You can add any number of veggies to the broth for your own tastes.

                Last I add some black pepper and if I have them some pepper tops and bottoms left over from other recipes. Depending on how the chicken was cooked I will also add some salt or season salt. Not necessary, but I will leave off, because sometimes I do not need salted broth.

                Bring all the ingredients to a boil. The longer the boil the more you get out of the bones from the carcass. I typically let boil 3-4 hours at least. If not covered you may need to add more water or even if covered may need to add more water to keep everything covered by liquid.

                After boiling I allow the broth to cool slightly and strain through a metal strainer. Something like this.

 metal-strainer

I will strain into a large pitcher. This makes it easier to can it later. While still hot I will put the broth into clean, sterile canning jars and pressure can it. You should NOT attempt to water bath can this. I am paranoid about food poisoning, so anything with meat, meat byproducts, or low acid food I pressure can.